Much previous research looking at the precise ways in which alcohol causes cancer has been done in cell cultures. But in this study, researchers have used mice to show how alcohol exposure leads to permanent genetic damage. Scientists at the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, gave diluted alcohol, chemically known
Creating an effective way to target cancer cells with drugs is challenging on multiple fronts. For example, the drugs don't always travel deeply enough through tissues, and they can get diluted in body fluids or sidetracked and taken up by healthy organs. To get around these issues, scientists have turned
Cells produce several alternative isoforms of Numb by differentially processing, or splicing, the mRNA encoding Numb to include or exclude specific regions of the protein. How this alternative splicing affects Numb's various functions remains unclear. In mammary gland stem cells, for example, Numb binds and inhibits an enzyme called Mdm2, preventing
Using a process known as single-cell RNA-sequencing, the researchers analyzed more than 6,000 individual cells from head and neck squamous cell carcinomas -- the most common head and neck tumor. Through their analysis, the research team created an atlas of all the different cells present in head and neck cancer.
In a study led by Dipanjan Pan, an Illinois professor of bioengineering, researchers designed nanoparticles that specifically bind to a protein that marks the surface of breast cancer stem cells. Encapsulated in the particles is the drug niclosamide -- a drug commonly prescribed around the world to treat tapeworm infections,
In the study, first authors Wen-Hsuan Chang from the USC Stem Cell laboratory of Wange Lu, Si Ho Choi from the Dongnam Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences (DIRAMS) in South Korea, and their colleagues describe how Ryk and its chaperone contribute to the development of the brain's cortex, which
Past efforts at Harvard's Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering led by Core Faculty members Pamela Silver and James Collins have created "kill switches" in bacteria that cause them to commit suicide in laboratory conditions when they are not wanted anymore. "We needed to take our previous work further and
Alan Lambowitz, a professor in the Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology and the Department of Molecular Biosciences, and his team are studying an ancient enzyme in bacteria that can be used to detect bits of genetic material shed by cancer or other diseased cells into a patient's bloodstream. Many current
But researchers have recently used T-cells engineered in the laboratory to combat tumours. Modified to include additional functions, these immune cells can hunt down and kill cancer cells. Unfortunately, however, such immune cell therapies can have significant side-effects. On top of that, the production of modified T-cells is technically challenging.
"Recent successes in cancer immunotherapy -- in the form of immune checkpoint inhibitors and adoptive T cell transfer -- demonstrate how activated immune cells can eradicate tumors, but until now we didn't fully appreciate immunosurveillance or the role of adaptive immunity in tumor formation," said senior author Michael Karin, PhD,