"This study is essentially the first description of a clinically translatable, simple single intervention in autoimmune diabetes that leads to normal blood sugars, and importantly with no immunosuppression," says senior study author George Gittes of the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. "A clinical trial in both type 1 and
Cells produce several alternative isoforms of Numb by differentially processing, or splicing, the mRNA encoding Numb to include or exclude specific regions of the protein. How this alternative splicing affects Numb's various functions remains unclear. In mammary gland stem cells, for example, Numb binds and inhibits an enzyme called Mdm2, preventing
The screening technology, developed by Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator (HHMI) Christopher Garcia and colleagues after almost 20 years of basic molecular studies of the immune system, may ultimately lead to more effective immunotherapies, which harness the body's immune system to fight cancer. "This is going to widen the scope
The extensive results are published in two separate studies, in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) and in Nature Methods. "We show conclusively that, in order to activate clotting, the cell needs a targeted force of a magnitude of just a few piconewtons -- or a force about a billion times
Using a process known as single-cell RNA-sequencing, the researchers analyzed more than 6,000 individual cells from head and neck squamous cell carcinomas -- the most common head and neck tumor. Through their analysis, the research team created an atlas of all the different cells present in head and neck cancer.
Following a heart attack, the innate immune system must kick in fast in order to limit the damage and stimulate tissue repair. Researchers led by Sabine Steffens, Professor of Clinical Pathobiochemistry at the Institute for Cardiovascular Prevention (IPEK) at LMU, have now identified the sites at which the inflammatory response
But researchers have recently used T-cells engineered in the laboratory to combat tumours. Modified to include additional functions, these immune cells can hunt down and kill cancer cells. Unfortunately, however, such immune cell therapies can have significant side-effects. On top of that, the production of modified T-cells is technically challenging.
This census, published in Nature, comprises a first-draft atlas of the small intestine's cellular composition, providing a reference for studying the biology of a host of conditions affecting or involving the gut, such as inflammatory bowel disease, cancers of the small intestine, celiac disease, and food allergies. The study also enhances
"Recent successes in cancer immunotherapy -- in the form of immune checkpoint inhibitors and adoptive T cell transfer -- demonstrate how activated immune cells can eradicate tumors, but until now we didn't fully appreciate immunosurveillance or the role of adaptive immunity in tumor formation," said senior author Michael Karin, PhD,
During an embryo's development, epithelial cells can break away from the cell cluster, modify their cell type-specific properties, and migrate into other regions to form the desired structures there. This process, which is known as an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), is reversible and can also proceed in the direction from mesenchymal