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Genetic Switches Behind Human Brain Evolution

The human brain differs from that of mice and monkeys because of its large cerebral cortex. The organ's most highly developed part, the cerebral cortex is responsible for thinking, perceiving and sophisticated communication. Scientists are just beginning to understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms that drive the growth of the

Rate and Risk of Head Injury in Mixed Martial Arts Remain Unknown

Researchers at St. Michael's Hospital reviewed 18 studies involving 7,587 patients, examining head injuries in MMA fighting published between 1990 and 2016. Of the studies included in the review, published online in the journal Trauma, there was no consistent definition of head injury, concussion or traumatic brain injury, or consistent protocol for

No Evidence that Gadolinium Causes Neurologic Harm

Gadolinium-based contrast media were introduced in 1988 as a means of enhancing MRI images and are commonly used today. The contrast agent is injected into the patient's bloodstream and eliminated from the body through the kidneys. "It's estimated that approximately 400 million doses of gadolinium have been administered since 1988," said

Brain Cortex Development: Ryk Needs a Chaperone

In the study, first authors Wen-Hsuan Chang from the USC Stem Cell laboratory of Wange Lu, Si Ho Choi from the Dongnam Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences (DIRAMS) in South Korea, and their colleagues describe how Ryk and its chaperone contribute to the development of the brain's cortex, which

Smart People Have Better Connected Brains

Understanding the foundations of human thought is fascinating for scientists and laypersons alike. Differences in cognitive abilities -- and the resulting differences for example in academic success and professional careers -- are attributed to a considerable degree to individual differences in intelligence. A study just published in Scientific Reports shows that these

Imaging Technique Shows Progress Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer's disease is associated with areas of high protein concentration in brain tissue: plaques and tangles. Raman imaging is now used to get sharp images of these affected areas. It is an attractive technique, because it shows more than the specific proteins involved. The presence of water and lipids, influenced

Consuming Nuts Strengthens Brainwave Function

In the study titled "Nuts and brain: Effects of eating nuts on changing electroencephalograph brainwaves," researchers found that some nuts stimulated some brain frequencies more than others. Pistachios, for instance, produced the greatest gamma wave response, which is critical for enhancing cognitive processing, information retention, learning, perception and rapid eye