Much previous research looking at the precise ways in which alcohol causes cancer has been done in cell cultures. But in this study, researchers have used mice to show how alcohol exposure leads to permanent genetic damage. Scientists at the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, gave diluted alcohol, chemically known
Creating an effective way to target cancer cells with drugs is challenging on multiple fronts. For example, the drugs don't always travel deeply enough through tissues, and they can get diluted in body fluids or sidetracked and taken up by healthy organs. To get around these issues, scientists have turned
Cells produce several alternative isoforms of Numb by differentially processing, or splicing, the mRNA encoding Numb to include or exclude specific regions of the protein. How this alternative splicing affects Numb's various functions remains unclear. In mammary gland stem cells, for example, Numb binds and inhibits an enzyme called Mdm2, preventing
The screening technology, developed by Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator (HHMI) Christopher Garcia and colleagues after almost 20 years of basic molecular studies of the immune system, may ultimately lead to more effective immunotherapies, which harness the body's immune system to fight cancer. "This is going to widen the scope
Using a process known as single-cell RNA-sequencing, the researchers analyzed more than 6,000 individual cells from head and neck squamous cell carcinomas -- the most common head and neck tumor. Through their analysis, the research team created an atlas of all the different cells present in head and neck cancer.
Cancer is caused by changes in the human genome. Mutations in oncogenes and in tumor suppressor genes accumulate unrecognized over time and lead to uncontrolled cell proliferation eventually. In 50% of all human tumors the tumor suppressor gene TP53 is no longer functional being the most frequently mutated cancer gene.
"Recent successes in cancer immunotherapy -- in the form of immune checkpoint inhibitors and adoptive T cell transfer -- demonstrate how activated immune cells can eradicate tumors, but until now we didn't fully appreciate immunosurveillance or the role of adaptive immunity in tumor formation," said senior author Michael Karin, PhD,
During an embryo's development, epithelial cells can break away from the cell cluster, modify their cell type-specific properties, and migrate into other regions to form the desired structures there. This process, which is known as an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), is reversible and can also proceed in the direction from mesenchymal
"Breast tumors are moving targets because they are really versatile," says Jun-Lin Guan, Francis Brunning Professor and Chair of the Department of Cancer at the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine and member of the Cincinnati Cancer Center and UC Cancer Institute, who co-authored the paper with postdoctoral fellow Syn