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Genetic Switches Behind Human Brain Evolution

The human brain differs from that of mice and monkeys because of its large cerebral cortex. The organ's most highly developed part, the cerebral cortex is responsible for thinking, perceiving and sophisticated communication. Scientists are just beginning to understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms that drive the growth of the

Uncovering the Power of Glial Cells

The collaboration was led by Erin Purcell, assistant professor of biomedical engineering at Michigan State University; Joseph W. Salatino, Purcell's graduate student researcher; Kip A. Ludwig, associate director of technology at Mayo Clinic; and Takashi Kozai, assistant professor of bioengineering at the University of Pittsburgh's Swanson School of Engineering. "Glial cells

Potential Path to Repair MS-Damaged Nerves

Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune, neurodegenerative disease, characterized by distinct disabilities affecting walking, vision, and cognition, to name a few. MS patients differ markedly from each other regarding which disability affects them the most. Inflammation strips the myelin coating from nerve cell extensions, called axons, and connections at the ends

Rate and Risk of Head Injury in Mixed Martial Arts Remain Unknown

Researchers at St. Michael's Hospital reviewed 18 studies involving 7,587 patients, examining head injuries in MMA fighting published between 1990 and 2016. Of the studies included in the review, published online in the journal Trauma, there was no consistent definition of head injury, concussion or traumatic brain injury, or consistent protocol for

Brain Cortex Development: Ryk Needs a Chaperone

In the study, first authors Wen-Hsuan Chang from the USC Stem Cell laboratory of Wange Lu, Si Ho Choi from the Dongnam Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences (DIRAMS) in South Korea, and their colleagues describe how Ryk and its chaperone contribute to the development of the brain's cortex, which

Smart People Have Better Connected Brains

Understanding the foundations of human thought is fascinating for scientists and laypersons alike. Differences in cognitive abilities -- and the resulting differences for example in academic success and professional careers -- are attributed to a considerable degree to individual differences in intelligence. A study just published in Scientific Reports shows that these

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