Alan Lambowitz, a professor in the Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology and the Department of Molecular Biosciences, and his team are studying an ancient enzyme in bacteria that can be used to detect bits of genetic material shed by cancer or other diseased cells into a patient's bloodstream. Many current
Cancer is caused by changes in the human genome. Mutations in oncogenes and in tumor suppressor genes accumulate unrecognized over time and lead to uncontrolled cell proliferation eventually. In 50% of all human tumors the tumor suppressor gene TP53 is no longer functional being the most frequently mutated cancer gene.
But researchers have recently used T-cells engineered in the laboratory to combat tumours. Modified to include additional functions, these immune cells can hunt down and kill cancer cells. Unfortunately, however, such immune cell therapies can have significant side-effects. On top of that, the production of modified T-cells is technically challenging.
"Recent successes in cancer immunotherapy -- in the form of immune checkpoint inhibitors and adoptive T cell transfer -- demonstrate how activated immune cells can eradicate tumors, but until now we didn't fully appreciate immunosurveillance or the role of adaptive immunity in tumor formation," said senior author Michael Karin, PhD,
During an embryo's development, epithelial cells can break away from the cell cluster, modify their cell type-specific properties, and migrate into other regions to form the desired structures there. This process, which is known as an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), is reversible and can also proceed in the direction from mesenchymal
In the current study, researchers sought to uncover the role of plasmepsins IX and X, two of the 10 types of plasmepsin proteins produced by P. falciparum for metabolic and other processes. They created malaria parasites that lacked plasmepsin IX or X under experimental conditions and compared them to those that had
"Breast tumors are moving targets because they are really versatile," says Jun-Lin Guan, Francis Brunning Professor and Chair of the Department of Cancer at the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine and member of the Cincinnati Cancer Center and UC Cancer Institute, who co-authored the paper with postdoctoral fellow Syn
The researchers found that in B cell tumors, mutated overactive versions of the Notch protein directly drive the expression of the Myc gene and many other genes that participate in B cell signaling pathways. Myc is a critical gene in governing cell proliferation and survival, activities that it carries out
Using sophisticated imaging and statistical methods, the scientists employed single-molecule FRET imaging techniques to establish a beachhead at the NMDA receptor gate that, when activated, allows ions to flow through the nerve cell's membrane. FRET stands for Förster resonance energy transfer. It is a way to use the light emitted by
Some of the treasures of Easter Island are invisible. In the 1960s, researchers discovered a bacterium that produces a compound with potent anti-fungal properties. They called it rapamycin, from the island's native name Rapa Nui. Although evolutionarily distant, fungi and mammals share much of the basic biochemistry that drives cellular