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Genetic Switches Behind Human Brain Evolution

The human brain differs from that of mice and monkeys because of its large cerebral cortex. The organ's most highly developed part, the cerebral cortex is responsible for thinking, perceiving and sophisticated communication. Scientists are just beginning to understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms that drive the growth of the

New Drug Capsule May Allow Weekly HIV Treatment

The new capsule is designed so that patients can take it just once a week, and the drug will release gradually throughout the week. This type of delivery system could not only improve patients' adherence to their treatment schedule but also be used by people at risk of HIV exposure

Mirror neuron activity predicts people’s decision-making in moral dilemmas

If you were in that situation, which was dramatized in the final episode of the '70s and '80s TV series "M.A.S.H.," what would you do? The results of a new UCLA study suggest that scientists could make a good guess based on how the brain responds when people watch someone else

Uncovering the Power of Glial Cells

The collaboration was led by Erin Purcell, assistant professor of biomedical engineering at Michigan State University; Joseph W. Salatino, Purcell's graduate student researcher; Kip A. Ludwig, associate director of technology at Mayo Clinic; and Takashi Kozai, assistant professor of bioengineering at the University of Pittsburgh's Swanson School of Engineering. "Glial cells

Vision, Sensory and Motor Testing Could Predict Best Batters in Baseball

In a study of 252 baseball professionals published today in the journal Scientific Reports, Duke researchers found players with higher scores on a series of vision and motor tasks completed on large touch-screen machines called Nike Sensory Stations, had better on-base percentages, more walks and fewer strikeouts -- collectively referred to

Alzheimer’s Drug Turns Back Clock in Powerhouse of Cell

"This really glues together everything we know about J147 in terms of the link between aging and Alzheimer's," says Dave Schubert, head of Salk's Cellular Neurobiology Laboratory and the senior author on the new paper. "Finding the target of J147 was also absolutely critical in terms of moving forward with

Diabetes Drug ‘Significantly Reverses Memory Loss’ in Mice with Alzheimer’s

The research, published in Brain Research, could bring substantial improvements in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease through the use of a drug originally created to treat type 2 diabetes. Lead researcher Professor Christian Holscher of Lancaster University in the UK said the novel treatment "holds clear promise of being developed into a

Time-Restricted Feeding Study Shows Promise in Helping People Shed Body Fat

The first human test of early time-restricted feeding, or eTRF, found that this meal-timing strategy reduced swings in hunger and altered fat and carbohydrate burning patterns, which may help with losing weight. With eTRF, people eat their last meal by the mid-afternoon and do not eat again until breakfast the

Gene Therapy Restores Normal Blood Glucose Levels in Mice with Type 1 Diabetes

"This study is essentially the first description of a clinically translatable, simple single intervention in autoimmune diabetes that leads to normal blood sugars, and importantly with no immunosuppression," says senior study author George Gittes of the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. "A clinical trial in both type 1 and

Inflammation Drives Progression of Alzheimer’s

Alzheimer's disease is a devastating neurodegenerative condition ultimately leading to dementia. An effective treatment does not yet exist. The disease is associated with the aberrant aggregation of small proteins called "Amyloid-beta" (Abeta) that accumulate in the brain and appear to harm neurons. In recent years, studies revealed that deposits of

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